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By Margaret M. Miles

Cleopatra—a courageous, astute, and captivating girl who spoke many languages, entertained lavishly, hunted, went into conflict, eradicated siblings to consolidate her strength, and held off the specter of Imperial Rome to guard her kingdom so long as she could—continues to fascinate centuries after she governed Egypt. those wide-ranging essays discover such themes as Cleopatra’s debatable journey to Rome, her suicide through snake chunk, and the afterlife of her love potions. They view Cleopatra from the Egyptian standpoint, and consider the reception in Rome of Egyptian tradition, in particular of its faith and structure. They speak about movies approximately her, and look at what encouraged Egyptomania in early smooth artwork. jointly, those essays remove darkness from Cleopatra’s legacy and illustrate the way it has been used and reused during the centuries.

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Carcopino, Jules César (1968): 415–30. A extra targeted learn of specific points is given by way of H. Heinen, Rom und Ägypten von fifty one bis forty seven v. Chr. (1966): 69–165. 17. Caesar, Bellum Civile three. 103; Strabo 17. 1. eleven; Appian, Bella Civilia 2. eighty four; Livy, Periochae 111; Plutarch, lifetime of Caesar forty eight. three; lifetime of Pompey seventy seven. 1; Dio Cassius forty two. three. 1. 18. it's handled now, in sound and good style, by way of Peek (2000). 19. R. Mond and M. Myers, The Bucheum (1934): 2. 12; furnish (1972): 46–47. 20. D. Thompson, Memphis below the Ptolemies (1988): 124–25; Peek (2000). 21. BGU 1730; cf. Peek (2000). 22. Plutarch, lifetime of Antony 27. 4–5. 23. Malalas, Chron. 10. 24. Appian, Bella Civilia 2. eighty four. 25. Strabo 17. 1. eleven. Green’s (1990: 664) reconstruction of the course is natural conjecture. 26. Cf. Strabo sixteen. 2. 1–2. See the superb therapy by way of Peek (2000). 27. British Museum Catalogue, Palestine, 107–8; A. B. Brett, “A New Cleopatra Tetradrachm of Ascalon,” American magazine of Archaeology forty-one (1937): 452–63; provide (1972): fifty three; Peek (2000). 28. See, e. g. , Volkmann (1958): sixty six; Heinen (1966): 82–85; furnish (1972): sixty three; eco-friendly (1990): 663; Meier (1995): 408; Southern (1999): 32. 29. Plutarch, lifetime of Caesar forty nine. 30. Dio Cassius forty two. 34. 3–6. 31. Lucan, 10. 37. 32. Caesar, Bellum Civile three. 105–7: “He made it identified that he sought after King Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra to disband their armies and to settle their disputes ahead of his tribunal instead of through strength of fingers among themselves. ” Ostendit sibi placere regem Ptolemaeum atque eius sororem Cleopatram exercitus, quos haberent, dimittere et de controversiis apud se potius quam inter se armis disceptare; Dio Cassius forty two. 35. 4–6. Cf. Strabo 17. eleven. Caesar can have claimed a status right here at the grounds of Auletes’ will that had granted Rome a guardianship (ἐʌȚȝȑȜİȚĮ) over his little ones; Dio Cassius forty two. 35. five. See D. Braund, Rome and the pleasant King (1984): 137. Dio Cassius, forty two. 34. 3–6, reviews that Cleopatra took the initiative and contacted Caesar first; approved through Heinen (1966): eighty two. 33. Heinen (1966): eighty four, additionally concerns concerning the propriety of appearances right here yet means that Cleopatra emerged from the bedclothes at an outer door—before Caesar observed her! 34. On Roman arbitration and mediation within the Greek East, see E. S. Gruen, The Hellenistic international and the arrival of Rome (1984): 101–26. 35. Dio Cassius forty two. 35. 4–6. now not strangely, Caesar passes over this in his personal account. 36. The journey came about, most likely, within the spring of forty seven; Appian, Bella Civilia 2. ninety; Suetonius, Divus Iulius fifty two. 1. Cf. Heinen (1966): 148–49. 37. at the date of Caesarion’s beginning and the paternity of Caesar, a lot disputed issues yet now not of relevance right here, see J. P. V. D. Balsdon, “Review of Volkmann, Cleopatra,” Classical evaluation 10 (1960): 68–71; H. Heinen, “Cäsar und Kaisarion,” Historia 18 (1969): 181–203, with past bibliography; furnish (1972): 83–85. 38. assets in T. R. S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (1952): 2. 293. 39. Bellum Alexandrinum 33; Suetonius, Divus Iulius seventy six; Appian, Bella Civilia four. fifty nine. forty. Nicolaus Damascenus, FGrH ninety F sixty eight. It used to be, in fact, in Antony’s pursuits later to say that Caesar had stated the paternity; Suetonius, Divus Iulius fifty two.

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